High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease

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If you already have high blood pressure, your doctor may have advised you to drink alcohol in moderation and cut back on your overall alcohol intake. Recent data suggest that moderate and heavy drinking contributes to high blood pressure in men and women. This combination of higher fluid levels in the body and smaller blood vessels increases blood pressure.

Yang 2017 published data only

Recently, Guzzo-Merello and colleagues (2015) reported that, among 282 patients with a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype, 33 percent had ACM. However, some reports indicate that alcohol-dependent women develop ACM after consuming less alcohol over a shorter period than do age-matched alcohol-dependent men (Fernández-Solà et al. 1997; Urbano-Marquez et al. 1989). Our results suggest the association between alcohol consumption and SBP is direct and linear with no evidence of a threshold for the association, while for DBP the association is modified by sex and geographic location.

how does alcohol affect blood pressure

Summary of findings 3

In the Miró study, alcohol drinkers also had been receiving pharmacologic treatments such as beta-adrenergic blocking agents that reduce blood pressure and also may have antioxidant effects. Pathophysiologic schema for the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). As noted in the text, the exact amount how does alcohol affect blood pressure and duration of alcohol consumption that results in ACM in human beings varies. The exact sequence of the development of ACM remains incompletely understood. Data from animal models and human beings with a history of long-term drinking suggest that oxidative stress may be an early and initiating mechanism.

Potential Biologic MechanismsUnderlying Alcohol-Induced BP Effects

how does alcohol affect blood pressure

First, the number of available studies was relatively small, particularly for the sex-specific analyses in women, who were also characterized by a limited range of alcohol intake. This increased the heterogeneity of the study results, as shown within the forest-plots that compared the highest and lowest alcohol intake categories, and the study-specific dose-response curves. In addition, our assessment of usual alcohol intake was derived from consumption at baseline and we cannot exclude the possibility that some participants may have changed their alcohol consumption during the follow-up period. This type of exposure misclassification could have contributed to the heterogeneity of our results. Similarly, none of the included studies reported stratified analysis by the types of alcohol consumed, precluding our investigation of the potential for different effects on BP based on the consumption of wine, beer or other types of alcoholic drinks.

Alcohol can affect blood pressure through a variety of possible mechanisms. Previous research suggests that acute alcohol consumption affects the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) by increasing plasma renin activity (Puddey 1985). The RAAS is responsible for maintaining the balance of fluid and electrolytes. An increase in plasma renin results in increased production of angiotensin I (AI), which is converted to angiotensin II (AII) by angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE). The hormone AII is a potent vasoconstrictor that stimulates aldosterone and vasopressin secretion from the adrenal gland, promoting sodium and water retention (Schrier 1999).

how does alcohol affect blood pressure

Because all of our outcomes of interest provided continuous data, we used the inverse variance approach and a fixed‐effect model to combine effect sizes across studies. Alcohol can affect drinkers differently based on their age, sex, ethnicity, family history, and liver condition (Cederbaum 2012; Chen 1999; Gentry 2000; Thomasson 1995). Previous studies reported that women are affected more than men after drinking the same amount of alcohol because of their lower body weight and higher body fat. The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) rises faster in women because they have a smaller volume of distribution (Kwo 1998).

Karatzi 2013 published data only

  • If it’s more than recommended, try to consciously pace your drinking to help reduce the spike in your blood pressure that excessive alcohol causes.
  • The unit of measurement for blood pressure is millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).
  • Read on to learn more about alcohol and blood pressure, as well as what drinks may benefit a person who has hypertension and when to talk with a doctor.
  • Any disagreements regarding inclusion or exclusion of studies were resolved by discussion between review authors.

The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review. Although many behavioral, genetic, and biologic variants influence the interconnection between alcohol use and CV disease, dose and pattern of alcohol consumption seem to modulate this most. Low-to-moderate alcohol use may mitigate certain mechanisms such as risk and hemostatic factors affecting atherosclerosis and inflammation, pathophysiologic processes integral to most CV disease. Both the negative and positive effects of alcohol use on particular CV conditions are presented here. The review concludes by suggesting several promising avenues for future research related to alcohol use and CV disease. The associations between drinking and CV diseases such as hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and cardiomyopathy have been studied extensively and are outlined in this review.

Kaul 2010 published data only

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